دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی
واحد علوم و تحقیقات هرمزگان
پایان نامه کارشناسی ارشد آموزش زبان انگلیسی M.A))
ارتباط بین هوش هیجانی ودرک مطلب: مطا لعه موردی بر روی دانشجویان سال سوم دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد بندرعباس
دکتر سید آیت الله رزمجو
دکتر فرزین فهیم نیا
سال تحصیلی: 1393-1392
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هدف از نگارش این تحقیق بررسی ارتباط بین هوش هیجانی و درک مطلب دانشجویان زبان سال سوم دانشگاه ازاد اسلامی واحد بندرعباس بود. 60 دانشجو در انجام این تحقیق شرکت کردند که لازم به ذکر است جنسیت افراد در آن نقشی نداشت. از شرکت کننده ها درخواست شده بود به دو تست متفاوت پاسخ دهند: اول به فرم خلاصه شده تست هوش هیجانی شامل 90 سوال ودوم به تست درک مطلب تافل، شامل 4 متن و 30 سوال. مقایسه نمره های میانگین هر دو تست نشان دهنده ارتباط ضعیف بین این دو متغیر -هوش هیجانی و درک مطاب- بود. همان طور که نتایج بدست امده نشان داده اند, ارتباط معناداری بین هوش هیجانی شرکت کننده ها وتوانایی انها در درک مطلب وجود داشت ( میزان معناداری=0.29) اما, نه به اندازه ای که از ان انتظار می رفت.
کلمات کلیدی: شورو هیجان, هوش, هوش هیجانی, بهره هوشی, خواندن و درک مطلب
Table of Contents
|Chapter One: Introduction|
|7||1.3 Statement of the problem|
|8||1.4 Significance of the study|
|8||1.5 Objective of the study|
|9||1.6 Research questions and hypotheses|
|9||1.7 Limitations and delimitations of the study|
|9||1.8 Definitions of key terms|
|9||1.8.3 Emotional Intelligence|
|11||1.8.4 Emotional quotient|
|11||1.8.6 Reading Comprehension|
|Chapter Two: Review of the Related Literature
|14||2.2 Emotional Intelligence|
|14||2.2.1 A Brief History of Emotional Intelligence|
|24||2.3 Models of Emotional Intelligence|
|24||2.3.1 Ability Model|
|25||2.3.2 Mixed Model|
|26||2.3. 3 Trait Model|
|27||2.4 Basic Criteria|
|28||2.5 Theoretical Considerations|
|34||2.5.3 Definitions of the 5 main categories of EI and their 15 sub-categories based on Bar-on’s classification (1996|
|34||18.104.22.168.b Emotional self awareness|
|36||22.214.171.124.b Social responsibility|
|36||126.96.36.199.c Inter-Personal relationship|
188.8.131.52.a Stress Tolerance
|36||184.108.40.206.b Impulse control|
|36||220.127.116.11.a Reality Testing|
|36||18.104.22.168.c Problem solving|
|37||22.214.171.124 General mood|
|37||2.6 Assessment Tools of Emotional Intelligence|
|40||2.7 Reading comprehension|
|40||2.7.1 A Brief History of Reading Comprehension|
|45||2.8 Theories behind Reading Comprehension|
|45||2.8.1 Schema Theory|
|46||2.8.2 Mental Model Theory|
|46||2.8.3 Proposition Theory|
|47||2.9 Strategies of improving reading comprehension based on the mentioned theories|
|48||2.10 Purposes of Reading Comprehension Strategies|
|48||2.11 What is Comprehension?|
|50||2.12 Studies carried out on the relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension|
|Chapter Three: Methodology|
|54||3.4.1 Bar-on Emotional Quotient Inventory|
|55||3.4.2 Reading Comprehension Test|
|56||3.5 Data collection procedure|
|56||3.6 Data analysis
|Chapter 4: Results and Discussion
|59||4.2 Descriptive Statistics|
|59||4.2.1 Descriptive statistics for the scores of emotional intelligence test|
|60||4.2.2 Descriptive statistics for the scores of reading comprehension test|
|61||4.3 Inferential Statistics|
|61||4.3.1 Is there any relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension?|
|Chapter 5: Summary, Conclusion, Implication & Suggestion|
|73||5.2 Summary of the study|
|76||5.4 Pedagogical Implications|
|77||5.5 Suggestions for further research|
|121||Abstract in Persian|
Lists of Tables
|55||Table 3.1. Reliability of the EI questionnaire|
|60||Table 4.1. Descriptive statistics for the scores of emotional intelligence test|
|60||Table 4.2. Descriptive statistics for the scores of reading comprehension test|
|61||Table 4.3. correlation between EI and reading comprehension (RC) tests in general|
|62||Tables 4.4. The correlation between all the questions of EI, one by one, with the total scores of RC|
|62||Table 4.5. Correlation between 1st main category of EI and its sub categories and reading comprehension|
|62||Table 4.6. Correlation between 2nd main category of EI and its sub categories and reading comprehension|
|63||Table 4.7. Correlation between 3rd main category of EI and its sub categories and reading comprehension|
|63||Table 4.8. Correlation between 4th main category of EI and its sub categories and reading comprehension|
|63||Table 4.9. Correlation between 5th main category of EI and its sub categories and reading comprehension|
Lists of Graphs
|65||Graph 4.1. It shows the weak relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension|
|66||Graph (4.2 &3). They show a big difference between the EI and RC `s mean scores|
|68||Graphs 4.4. The frequency graphs of the participants` answers to the 90 items of EI test|
List of Abbreviations
EI Emotional intelligence
EQ Emotional Quotient
EQ-I Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Quotient Inventory
IQ Intelligence Quotient
RC Reading Comprehension
The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Reading Comprehension: A Case Study of Junior Students of Bandar Abbas Islamic Azad University
The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension of junior students of Bandar Abbas Islamic Azad University majoring in English. 60 students took part in this research and it is worth mentioning that gender had no role in this study. The participants were asked to answer two different tests: first, a short form of Bar-on`s emotional intelligence test consists of 90 questions and second, a TOEFL reading comprehension test including 4 passages and 30 questions. Comparing the mean scores of the two tests indicated a weak relationship between these two variables. As the obtained results depicted emotional intelligence had significant correlation with the participants’ reading comprehension abilities (r=0.29) but, this relation was not to the extent that is expected to be.
Key terms: emotion, intelligence, emotional intelligence, emotional quotient, reading, and reading comprehension.
This chapter presents a brief background to the study of Emotional Intelligence and Reading Comprehension. Then it will be followed by the significance and objective of the study, research question and hypothesis, limitations and delimitations of the study and finally, the definitions of key terms.
A comprehensive initial theory of emotional intelligence (EI) that could be measured appeared 20 years ago in the scientific literature (Mayer, Salovey, & DiPaolo, 1990; Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Thus, the term emotional intelligence was first introduced by Salovey and Mayer (1990) in the early 1990s and was made popular by Daniel Goleman with the 1995 publication of his book, Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ. But, the earliest roots of emotional intelligence can be found in Charles Darwin‘s work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and, second, adaptation (Bar-On, R., 2006). In 1872, Charles Darwin published the first known work on the importance of emotional expression for survival and adaptation, a component of emotional-social intelligence (Bar-On, 2005). Then, educators and policy makers have become increasingly aware of the significance of providing students with educational opportunities that enhance their emotional development (Graczyk, Weissberg, & Payton, 2000). In the field of psychology the roots of emotional intelligence can be traced back to the beginnings of the intelligence testing movement when, in 1920, E. L. Thorndike was the first to identify the aspect of emotional intelligence as social intelligence (Goleman, 2001, p. 16). According to Thorndike (1920), the concept of social intelligence refers to the “ability to understand and manage men, women, boys, and girls and to act wisely in human relations” (p. 228). E.L. Thorndike used the term social intelligence to describe the skill of understanding and managing other people. Goleman (2001) says that Howard Gardner revitalized the concept of emotional intelligence with his model of multiple intelligences. In 1983, Howard Gardner‘s Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences introduced the idea of multiple intelligences which included both interpersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people) and intrapersonal intelligence (the capacity to understand oneself, to appreciate one’s feelings, fears and motivations). In Gardner’s point of view, traditional types of intelligence, such as IQ, fail to fully explain cognitive ability (Smith, M.K., 2002). Similarly, in 1940 David Wechsler described the influence of non-intellective factors on intelligent behavior, and further argued that his models of intelligence would not be completed until he could adequately describe these factors (Bar-On, R., 2006). However, in 1988, Reuven Bar-On is reported as the first to assess emotional intelligence, it is reported that Bar-On used the term emotional intelligence (EQ) in his doctoral dissertation long before it gained popularity as a name for emotional intelligence and long before Salovey and Mayer published their first model of intelligence (Goleman, 2001). Salovey and Mayer (1990) describe emotional intelligence as “the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions” (p. 189). As they describe emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotion, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought; to understand emotions and emotional knowledge; to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth. They also believe that there are four parts to emotional intelligence, which include (a) perceiving emotions, (b) using emotions to assist thought, (c) understanding emotions, and (d) managing emotions. In order for a person to be emotionally intelligent, they should be skilled in all four of these areas (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). However, in comparison, Goleman (1995) posits that emotional intelligence consists of five components: (a) knowing our emotions (self-awareness), (b) managing them, (c) motivating ourselves, (d) recognizing emotion in others (empathy), and (e) handling relationships.
Here, is a brief history of Emotional Intelligence by Kendra Cherry as cited in (psychology.about.com):
- 1930s – Edward Thorndike describes the concept of “social intelligence” as the ability to get along with other people.
- 1940s – David Wechsler suggests that affective components of intelligence may be essential to success in life.
- 1950s – Humanistic psychologists such as Abraham Maslow describe how people can build emotional strength.
- 1975 – Howard Gardner publishes The Shattered Mind, which introduces the concept of multiple intelligences.
- 1985 – Wayne Payne introduces the term emotional intelligence in his doctoral dissertation entitled “A study of emotion: developing emotional intelligence; self-integration; relating to fear, pain and desire (theory, structure of reality, problem-solving, contraction/expansion, and tuning in/coming out/letting go).”
- 1987 – In an article published in Mensa Magazine, Keith Beasley uses the term “emotional quotient.” It has been suggested that this is the first published use of the term, although Reuven Bar-On claims to have used the term in an unpublished version of his graduate thesis.
- 1990 – Psychologists Peter Salovey and John Mayer publish their landmark article, “Emotional Intelligence,” in the journal Imagination, Cognition, and Personality.
- 1995 – The concept of emotional intelligence is popularized after publication of psychologist and New York Times science writer Daniel Goleman’s book Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than IQ.
To comprehend the ideas in the material is the main goal of reading. Thus, without comprehension, reading would be empty and meaningless. Reading comprehension is very crucial to the success of individuals during their education and beyond. To be successful in education, in work and even in hobbies, people must be able to understand the text that is ever present in the environment. Theories of text comprehension contend that as readers process text, they form a mental representation of the text (van den Broek, Young, Tzeng, & Linderholm, 1998; Graesser, Singer & Trabasso, 1994). This mental representation includes information relaing to the people, settings, actions and events either described explicitly or implied by the text (Garnham, 1996). When we are reading a text, we are unable to compute all the information presented to us, mainly because of processing limitations. We therefore construct a model of the situation, what can be referred to as a state of the world (Garnham & Oakhill, 1994), based on some elements presented to us and based on information stored in our long-term memory.
As Vygotsky (1978) suggests, reading is a mode of communication, and it is a social mediated language-learning activity. As a result, reading comprehension involves emotional processing and is essential to life success.
Souvignier & Moklesgerami (2006) defined Reading comprehension as one`s ability to read and remember, reproduce, learn from, and find deeper meaning in text for later use.
In the process of reading comprehension, readers use previous knowledge to handle the text and create new knowledge. The more knowledge a person brings to his or her reading, the more he or she will understand the text (Brandao & Oakhill, 2005; Guterman, 2003). Others say that good reading comprehension requires the reader to be active, and to be able to evaluate the text, preview the text, make predictions, make decisions during reading, review for deeper meaning, find inconsistencies, and evaluate his or her own understanding (Houtveen & van de Grift, 2006; Lau, 2006; Lau & Chan, 2003).
1.3 Statement of the problem
As Gardner (2006) states, in order to understand the complexity of language learning process, attention should be attached to internal mechanisms and social interpersonal interaction involved in this process. Therefore, emotional intelligence can be a great help since, as Coleman (2001) says, it not only serves as an international mechanism, but also interlocks with the external environment. Although variety factors are involved in comprehending a text, it seems that intelligence is an integral part of it. .But, what matter is that we most believe good comprehension of a text is mainly relates to the one`s previous knowledge and experiences not his/her intelligence. The issue is that whether intelligence is an abstract and passive factor in comprehending of a text or really a vital one. Therefore in this study, the relationship between emotional intelligence and reading comprehension is supposed to be investigated to clarify the underlying intelligence areas related to reading comprehension.
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